电光与控制, 2015, 22(5): 25, 网络出版: 2015-05-01
Attitude Estimation for Quad-Rotor Aircraft
北京航空航天大学宇航学院, 北京 100191
四旋翼飞行器 姿态估计 加速度计 陀螺仪 卡尔曼滤波 quad-rotor aircraft attitude estimation accelerometer gyroscope Kalman filter
针对四旋翼飞行器姿态估计中传感器由于旋翼振动带来的测量误差, 通过卡尔曼滤波方法融合加速度计和陀螺仪的测量数据来提高姿态估计精度,减少因载体振动带来的噪声并解决陀螺漂移问题。先分析了惯性器件误差类型, 然后建立了三自由度的系统模型并用Matlab进行仿真分析, 再利用带有螺旋桨的实验台验证方法的可行性。实验结果表明,姿态估计误差在2°以内且没有随时间的增长而增大, 基本满足四旋翼飞行器姿态估计的实时性、廉价性、高精度等要求, 该方法可以成功应用于四旋翼飞行器的姿态控制, 抑制噪声干扰, 为稳定的自主飞行创造条件。
To the measurement error caused by sensor due to rotor vibration in attitude estimation for quad-rotor aircraft, the data measured by accelerometer and gyroscope are fused through a Kalman filter method, to improve the accuracy of attitude estimation, reduce the noise caused by carrier vibration and solve the gyro drift problem.First, the error types of inertial devices were analyzed, and then a three-DOF (degree of freedom) system model was established, simulation analysis was also made through Matlab.Finally, the feasibility of this method was verified by using an experimental bench with propellers.Experimental results showed that the attitude estimation error was within 2° and was not accumulated over time, basically meeting the requirements of attitude estimation for quad-rotor aircraft, such as real-time performance, low cost and high precision.This method could be successfully applied to the attitude control for quad-rotor aircraft, which can suppress the noise interference, and create a good condition for stable autonomous flight.