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Overview of wall probes for erosion and deposition studies in the TEXTOR tokamak

Overview of wall probes for erosion and deposition studies in the TEXTOR tokamak

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摘要

An overview of diagnostic tools e test limiters and collector probes e used over the years for material migration studies in the TEXTOR tokamak is presented. Probe transfer systems are shown and their technical capabilities are described. this is accompanied by a brief presentation of selected results and conclusions from the research on material erosion e deposition processes including tests of candidate materials (e.g. W, Mo, carbon-based composites) for plasma-facing components in controlled fusion devices. the use of tracer techniques and methods for analysis of materials retrieved from the tokamak are summarized. the impact of research on the reactor wall technology is addressed.

Abstract

An overview of diagnostic tools e test limiters and collector probes e used over the years for material migration studies in the TEXTOR tokamak is presented. Probe transfer systems are shown and their technical capabilities are described. this is accompanied by a brief presentation of selected results and conclusions from the research on material erosion e deposition processes including tests of candidate materials (e.g. W, Mo, carbon-based composites) for plasma-facing components in controlled fusion devices. the use of tracer techniques and methods for analysis of materials retrieved from the tokamak are summarized. the impact of research on the reactor wall technology is addressed.

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DOI:10.1016/j.mre.2017.03.002

所属栏目:Review Articles

基金项目:We express our deep gratitude for all crucial contributions to the program made by Dr. Birger Emmoth (1945-2009) from the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden. Dr. Emmoth took part in the design and construction of the collector probe system and then for many years he was a leader of the experimental program on measurements of particle fluxes in the scrape-off-layer plasma in the TEXTOR tokamak.

收稿日期:2016-11-26

修改稿日期:2017-02-23

网络出版日期:--

作者单位    点击查看

M. Rubel:Department of Fusion Plasma Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, S-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
S. Brezinsek:Forschungszentrum Ju¨lich GmbH, Institut fu¨r Energie- und Klimaforschung e Plasmaphysik, Partner of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (TEC), 52425 Ju¨lich, Germany
J.W. Coenen:Forschungszentrum Ju¨lich GmbH, Institut fu¨r Energie- und Klimaforschung e Plasmaphysik, Partner of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (TEC), 52425 Ju¨lich, Germany
A. Huber:Forschungszentrum Ju¨lich GmbH, Institut fu¨r Energie- und Klimaforschung e Plasmaphysik, Partner of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (TEC), 52425 Ju¨lich, Germany
A. Kirschner:Forschungszentrum Ju¨lich GmbH, Institut fu¨r Energie- und Klimaforschung e Plasmaphysik, Partner of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (TEC), 52425 Ju¨lich, Germany
A. Kreter:Forschungszentrum Ju¨lich GmbH, Institut fu¨r Energie- und Klimaforschung e Plasmaphysik, Partner of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (TEC), 52425 Ju¨lich, Germany
P. Petersson:Department of Fusion Plasma Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, S-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
V. Philipps:Forschungszentrum Ju¨lich GmbH, Institut fu¨r Energie- und Klimaforschung e Plasmaphysik, Partner of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (TEC), 52425 Ju¨lich, Germany
A. Pospieszczyk:Forschungszentrum Ju¨lich GmbH, Institut fu¨r Energie- und Klimaforschung e Plasmaphysik, Partner of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (TEC), 52425 Ju¨lich, Germany
B. Schweer:Forschungszentrum Ju¨lich GmbH, Institut fu¨r Energie- und Klimaforschung e Plasmaphysik, Partner of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (TEC), 52425 Ju¨lich, Germany
G. Sergienko:Forschungszentrum Ju¨lich GmbH, Institut fu¨r Energie- und Klimaforschung e Plasmaphysik, Partner of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (TEC), 52425 Ju¨lich, Germany
T. Tanabe:Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Japan
Y. Ueda:Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
P. Wienhold:Forschungszentrum Ju¨lich GmbH, Institut fu¨r Energie- und Klimaforschung e Plasmaphysik, Partner of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (TEC), 52425 Ju¨lich, Germany

联系人作者:M. Rubel(marek.rubel@ee.kth.se)

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【58】M. Rubel, J. Coenen, D. Ivanova, S. M€oller, P. Petersson, et al., Tungsten migration studies by controlled injection of volatile compounds, J. Nucl. Mater. 438 (2013) S170.

【59】M. Rubel, A. Weckmann, P. Str€om, P. Petersson, A. Garcia-Carrasco, et al., Tracer techniques for the assessment of material migration and surface modification of plasma facing components, J. Nucl. Mater. 463 (2015) 280.

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【63】M.J. Rubel, G. Sergienko, A. Kreter, A. Pospieszczyk, M. Psoda, et al., An overview of fuel retention and morphology in a castellated tungsten limiter, Fusion Eng. Des. 83 (2008) 1049.

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【65】M. Psoda, M. Rubel, G. Sergienko, P. Sundelin, A. Pospieszczyk, Material mixing on plasma-facing components: compound formation, J. Nucl. Mater. 386-388 (2009) 740.

【66】A. Litnovsky, V. Philipps, P. Wienhold, A. Kreter, A. Kirschner, et al., Overview of material migration and mixing, fuel retention and cleaning of ITER-like castellated structures in TEXTOR, J. Nucl. Mater. 415 (2011) S289.

【67】D. Matveev, A. Kirschner, A. Litnovsky, M. Komm, D. Borodin, et al., Modelling of impurity deposition in gaps of castellated surfaces with the 3D-GAPS code, Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 52 (2010) 075007.

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【70】A. Kirschner, P. Wienhold, V. Philipps, J.P. Coad, A. Huber, et al., Modelling of carbon transport and re-deposition in fusion devices:evidence of enhanced re-erosion of in-situ deposited carbon films, J. Nucl. Mater. 328 (2004) 62.

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【75】J.P. Coad, J. Likonen, M. Rubel, E. Vainonen-Ahlgren, D.E. Hole, et al., Overview of material re-deposition and fuel retention studies at JET with the Gas Box divertor, Nucl. Fusion 46 (2006) 350.

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【78】P. Petersson, M. Rubel, G. Possnert, S. Brezinsek, B. Pegourie, Nuclear reaction and heavy ion ERD analysis of wall materials from controlled fusion devices: deuterium and nitrogen-15 studies, Nucl. Instr. Methods B273 (2012) 113.

【79】P. Petersson, M. Rubel, G. Possnert, S. Brezinsek, A. Kreter, et al., Overview of nitrogen-15 application as a tracer gas for material migration and retention studies in tokamaks, Phys. Scr. T159 (2014) 014042.

【80】P. Petersson, A. Hakola, J. Likonen, M. Mayer, J. Miettunen, et al., Injection of nitrogen-15 tracer into ASDEX-Upgrade: new technique in material migration studies, J. Nucl. Mater. 438 (2013) S616.

【81】D. Ivanova, M. Rubel, V. Philipps, B. Schweer, M. Freisinger, et al., Laser-based and thermal methods for fuel removal and cleaning of plasma-facing components, J. Nucl. Mater. 415 (2001) S801.

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【83】P. Wienhold, F. Weschenfelder, Two-dimensional measurements of thin film erosion and deposition by colorimetry of interference colours and its application in fusion devices, Vacuum 47 (1996) 919.

【84】M.J. Rubel, J.P. Coad, G.F. Neill, C.Walker, P. Wienhold, et al., Erosion and re-deposition on diagnostic mirrors for ITER: first mirror test at JET and TEXTOR, in: Proc. 30th EPS Conf. On Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Europhys. Conf. Abstracts 27A, 2003.

【85】P. Wienhold, A. Litnovsky, V. Philipps, B. Schweer, G. Sergienko, et al., Exposure of metal mirrors in the scrape-off layer of TEXTOR, J. Nucl. Mater. 337-339 (2005) 1116.

【86】A. Litnovsky, P. Wienhold, V. Philipps, A. Romanyuk, O. Schmitz, et al., Diagnostic mirrors for ITER: a material choice and the impact of erosion and deposition on their performance, J. Nucl. Mater. 363-365 (2007) 1395.

【87】D. Larsson, M. Rubel, Ion flux measurements with the improved collector probe system at the TEXTOR-94 tokamak, Rev. Sci. Instr. 69 (1998) 2671.

【88】M. Rubel, F. Waelbroeck, H. Bergs?ker, P. Wienhold, B. Emmoth, et al., Oxygen impurity analysis by collector probe measurements in the carbonised TEXTOR tokamak, J. Nucl. Mater. 161 (1989) 153.

【89】B. Emmoth, M. Rubel, P. Wienhold, J. Winter, H. Bergs?ker, Metal impurity fluxes in the TEXTOR scrape-off layer measured by collector probes in the presence of ALT-II toroidal belt limiter, J. Nucl. Mater. 162-164 (1989) 409.

【90】P. Wienhold, J. Von Seggern, H.G. Esser, J. Winter, H. Bergs?ker, et al., Impurity redeposition in the SOL of TEXTOR after boronization, J. Nucl. Mater. 176-177 (1990) 150.

【91】I. Gudowska, H. Bergs?ker, B. Emmoth, P. Wienhold, M. Rubel, Fluxes of boron in the scrape-off plasma of TEXTOR following boronization, J. Nucl. Mater. 176-177 (1990) 363.

【92】P. Wienhold, J. Von Seggern, Oxygen gettering on graphite in the SOL of TEXTOR after wall conditioning with boron, Vacuum 43 (1992) 745.

【93】M. Rubel, P. Wienhold, N. Almqvist, B. Emmoth, H.G. Esser, et al., Silicon fluxes in the scrape-off layer plasma during silicon-assisted operation of TEXTOR, J. Nucl. Mater. 220-222 (1995) 536.

【94】M. Rubel, H. Bergs?ker, B. Emmoth, P. Wienhold, F. Waelbroeck, et al., Deuterium and impurity fluxes in the TEXTOR scrape-off layer measured at different limiter configurations, Phys. Scr. 43 (1991) 508.

【95】M. Rubel, V. Philipps, U. K€ogler, T. Tanabe, D. Larsson, et al., Impact on molybdenum and tungsten test limiters on ion fluxes in the plasma edge of TEXTOR, J. Nucl. Mater. 249 (1997) 116.

【96】M. Rack, Y. Liang, H. Jaegers, J. A?mann, G. Satheeswaran, et al., A rotating directional probe for the measurements of fast ion losses and plasma rotation at Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84 (2013) 083501.

【97】Y. Yang, Y. Liang, Y. Sun, T. Zhang, J. Pearson, et al., Experimental observations of plasma edge magnetic field response to resonant magnetic perturbation on the TEXTOR tokamak, Nucl. Fusion 52 (2012) 074014.

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引用该论文

M. Rubel,S. Brezinsek,J.W. Coenen,A. Huber,A. Kirschner,A. Kreter,P. Petersson,V. Philipps,A. Pospieszczyk,B. Schweer,G. Sergienko,T. Tanabe,Y. Ueda,P. Wienhold. Overview of wall probes for erosion and deposition studies in the TEXTOR tokamak[J]. Matter and Radiation at Extremes, 2017, 2(3): 87-104

M. Rubel,S. Brezinsek,J.W. Coenen,A. Huber,A. Kirschner,A. Kreter,P. Petersson,V. Philipps,A. Pospieszczyk,B. Schweer,G. Sergienko,T. Tanabe,Y. Ueda,P. Wienhold. Overview of wall probes for erosion and deposition studies in the TEXTOR tokamak[J]. Matter and Radiation at Extremes, 2017, 2(3): 87-104

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